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Tsinghua University
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Dean, Department of Physics
Tsinghua University, Beijing

1. Tsinghua University
Located in the famous Tsinghua Imperial Garden of the Qing Dynasty in the northwestern suburbs of Beijing, Tsinghua  University (THU) was established in 1911, partly funded by the ��Boxer Indemnity��. In April 2011, Tsinghua celebrated its centennial anniversary with many festive activities, including joint celebrations both in Beijing and Hsinchu (Tsinghua
at Hsinchu (NTHU) was reinstalled in 1956). It functioned at first as a preparatory school called ��Tsinghua Academy�� and it was funded by the government in order to prepare students to continue further studies in the United States. In 1928, its name was changed to ��National Tsinghua University��. In 1925, Tsinghua launched its four-year undergraduate
program. In 1929, the graduate school was established. During World War II, Tsinghua University moved to Kun-Ming and merged with Peking University and Nankai University to form the National Southwest Associated University in 1937. After the war, the National Southwest Associated University was dissolved and Tsinghua University moved back to its
Beijing campus. Tsinghua University is characterized by its elite education which has cultivated distinguished
intellectuals, pillars of the country, and great entrepreneurs. Famous alumni include scholars Wang Guowei, Liang
Qichao, Chen Yinque and Zhao Yuanren, renowned as the : ��Four Great Masters�� ; Nobel Laureates C. N. Yang and T. D. Lee; Gan-chang Wang, San-qiang Qian, Huan-wu Peng, Da-heng Wang, Jiu-Zhang Zhao, Fang-yun Chen, Jia-xian Deng, Guang-ya Zhu, Guang-zhao Zhou, and Yong-huai Guo who have played significant roles in China��s A-bomb, H-bomb and satellite projects; State President Jintao Hu; Vice-President Jinping Xi, Chairman of the National People��s Congress, Bangguo Wu; former Premier Rongji Zhu; and many successful entrepreneurs.
Qi-Kun Xue received his PhD degree in condensed matter physics from the Institute of Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in 1994. From 1994 to 2000, he worked as a research associate in Tohoku University, Japan and North Carolina State University, USA. He became a professor at the Institute of Physics, CAS in 1999. Since 2005, he has been a professor in Department of Physics, Tsinghua University. He is now the Chair of Department of Physics and the Dean of School of Sciences, Tsinghua University. His research interests include scanning tunneling micro-copy/spectroscopy, molecular beam epitaxy growth of semiconductor and superconductor thin films, low-dimensional superconductivity, topological insulators. 

2. The History o f the Physics Department
The Physics Department was founded in 1926, and was one of the very first departments of Tsinghua University. Led by Professor Chi-sun Yeh, the department has earned the reputation as being one of the best physics departments in China. During the World War II, it was merged within the National Southwest Associated University. It is a wonder that two Nobel Laureates (Chen-Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee) and a great number of Chinese outstanding scholars were educated there and then. During 1952 and 1981, the department temporarily ceased as a result of the nationwide restructuring of China��s higher education system. The department was re-established in 1982, and great efforts have been made since then. Now it has become one of the most important research centers and cultivating bases for physicists, and is one of the first five ��National Key�� physics departments in China. The Physics Department has cultivated thousands of scholars, including more than 80 members of organizations including, but not limited to, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Sciences of
the United States of America. The department has been selected as both a ��National Base for Science Research and Education�� and a ��National Base for Engineering Physical Education�� by the Ministry Of Education, a status which is unique for a physics department in China.

3. The Faculty
The Department now has 86 faculty members, including 50 full professors and 25 associate professors. Among them, nine professors are members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and three of them are members of the TWAS (The Academy of the Sciences for the Developing World). Ten professors have been winners of the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars. Many faculty members, as a result of their research achievements, have received various national and international awards such as the National Award in Natural Sciences, the Chang-Jiang Chair Professorship, the Outstanding Youth Scholar Prize from Hong Kong��s Qiushi Foundation, the Alexander von Humboldt
Research Fellowship, and China��s Prestigious Chang- Jiang Scholar Award.
4. Laboratories, Institutes and Centers
The Department hosts the State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology. State Key laboratories are important research institutes in China. In order to become a State Key laboratory, a research body must satisfy very high conditions. State Key laboratories receive continuous fiscal support from the government. Presently, there are three research institutes in the department: 1) The Institute of Condensed Matter Physics; 2) The Institute of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, and; 3) The Institute of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. There are five interdisciplinary research centers in the department, which are as
follows: 1) The Center of Atomic, Molecular and Nano Science; 2) The Center for Astrophysics ; 3) The Applied Superconductivity Research Center; 4) The Center for High Energy Physics, and; 5) The Tsinghua- Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center.
The department��s research areas include the following:
1) Particle Physics and Quantum Field Theory
2) High Energy Astrophysics
3) Nuclear Physics and Technology
4) Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Design
5) Nano- and Low-Dimensional Systems
6) Strongly Coupled Systems
7) Superconductivity Study and Application
8) Laser Physics, Nonlinear and Quantum Optics
9) Quantum Computation and Information
10) Atomic and Molecular Structures and Dynamical Processes
11) Detection, Identification and Manipulation of Single Atoms and Molecules
12) Acoustic Study and Applications
Faculty members and students publish about 300 papers and proceedings of international conferences in refereed journals each year, a rate which ranks among the highest in physics institutes in China. In recent years the department is also among the top institutions for publishing papers in high impact journals such as Science and Nature .
5. Education Programs
The Department attracts the most brilliant students. About 300 graduate students and 426 undergraduate majors, including several National and International Physics Olympiad winners, are currently studying in the Department. The department aims to help its majors to develop strong mathematical and analytical skills, good laboratory skills, effective written and oral communication skills, and of course a solid understanding of the fundamental laws that govern the
universe. Master��s programs and doctoral programs provided by the department cover all sub-fields in physics,
including condensed matter physics, atomic and molecular physics, high energy and nuclear physics, optics, theoretical physics, acoustics, plasma physics, and astrophysics. Undergraduate students are encouraged to participate in research groups within the department or in research groups of other physics institutes. By doing so, students have the opportunity to learn fundamental skills that will be valuable in variety of research settings. Our graduate students in physics are actively engaged in research at the forefront of physics, in collaboration with faculty who are acknowledged leaders in their respective fields.
6. Research Highlights of Faculty Members
The faculty members of the physics department are at the forefront of research areas across the full spectrum of theoretical and experimental physics including condensed matter physics, atomic, molecular and optical physics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and fields, astrophysics and cosmology and biophysics. Here is a brief description of research highlights of some faculty members. Prof. Shoushan Fan��s research team has carried out a
systematic study on the growth mechanism, properties and application of carbon nanotubes. Super-aligned
CNT arrays were first synthesized on silicon wafers by their group in 2002, which can be converted to continuous yarns and films. They achieved an electron emission source with large current density by using the CNT yarns and realized the real application of superaligned CNT films on the flexible touch screen. They found that the super-aligned CNT films had a very strong thermoacoustic effect. Based on this finding, a transparent, flexible, stretchable, and magnet-free thin film loudspeaker was fabricated using CNT films. The research team led by Prof. Bing-Lin Gu
performed extensive investigations on quantum characteristics of low-dimensional structures and their application in functional materials. Prof. Gu and his colleagues found an unique edge-state-induced symmetry-dependent transport behavior of graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrated that the electronic devices built on patterned grapheme nanoribbons could be made with atomic-perfect-interface junctions and controlled doping via manipulation of edge
terminations. They also predicted a metal-tosemiconductor transition of squashed carbon nanotubes. Proposed graphene-based n-type field effect transistors and metal-semiconductor junctions were realized or confirmed by later experiments. The group of Prof. Qi-Kun Xue was the first in the world to develop the dynamics of molecular beam
epitaxy growth of high-quality topological insulator films. They also experimentally proved that topological insulators are protected by time reversal symmetry and observed the Landau quantization of the topological states. These studies have been selected as one of the top ten scientific achievements of China in 2010. They have also found superconductivity in films with a thickness of a single atomic layer and become one of the few groups in the world that have achieved singlespin sensitivity in STM. Prof. Bang-fen Zhu and his collaborators have worked out a theory on optical effects of pure spin currents in semiconductors, including the Faraday rotation and the second-order nonlinear optical spectroscopy of spin currents. They have proposed a new methodology for direct ��seeing�� of spin currents
where and while they flow. As predicted, a sizable sum-frequency susceptibility due to spin currents has recently been verified experimentally. Professor Bisong Cao and his research team have thoroughly studied and developed the design theory, fabrication and tuning methods for high-performance high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters and
cryogenic low noise amplifiers (Cryo-LNA). They developed the innovative technologies for producing HTS filter systems with independent intellectual property rights and successfully assembled the first HTS filter system for the code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile communication system in China. Prof. Li You��s group recently discovered that singleaxis twisting spin squeezing to the collective spin states can be converted into double-axis twisting, thus
improving noise suppression from 1/N2/3 to 1/N, through a general linear transformation to the single particle basis, affected by an external coupling to the single particle states. Prof. Gui Lu Long��s team focuses on quantum
information. They proposed the idea of distributed quantum communication and constructed several highdimensional
and multi-party quantum communication schemes. They proposed the world��s first quantum secure direct communication protocol in which secret messages are sent directly through a quantum channel. They established the phase matching condition in quantum search and constructed an exact quantum search algorithm which improves the successful rate of the famous Grover algorithm. They experimentally realized several important quantum algorithms,
including the quantum clock synchronization algorithm, quantum state transfer, and the quantum search algorithm.
Prof. Wanyun Ma��s group studies the ultra-sensitive, real-time and in-situ fluorescent imaging for special bio-molecules in living cells by ICCD-DualView- TIRFM. The motion trajectories of single nano-scaled particles in solution are recorded in real-time and tracked in three-dimensions, and a diffusion coefficient of constrained Brownian motion has been obtained, which was consistent with theoretical calculations. The lengths of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA fragments in solution were determined via quantumdot- based fluorescence resonance energy transfer
(FRET). The kinetic changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations were observed in single-cells during NO-induced thymocytes apoptosis. This technique has unique advantages in biomedical research.  Prof. Qing Wang and his students built up a theoretical formalism deriving the low energy effective chiral lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons from the underlying quantum chromodynamics. They have also developed a corresponding calculation method and
computer program. Now their calculation method already offers all p2, p4 and p6 order normal and abnormal parts of low energy constants of the effective chiral lagrangian. The Joint Institute for Measurement Science (JMI),
led by Prof. Lijun Wang, was established in 2009 by Tsinghua and the National Institute of Metrology (NIM). The main thrust of the research is on ultra-high precision measurement and applications. For example, they developed an absolute gravimeter that can measure the earth��s gravity and its changes to the 10th digit, and found important applications in geodesy and the Watt balance experiment (which is aimed at redefining the kilogram). JMI also recently successfully distributed highly precise atomic clock signals over 80 kilometers with a precision reaching 1 part in 1018
(1 day). This experiment may find important applications in very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) for radio astronomy.
The group lead by Prof. Yu-Ping Kuang has systematically studied hadronic transitions in heavy quarkonium systems. In recent years, they quantitatively predicted the production rate of and the transition rate of ��(3770)��J/������at BES and CLEO-c. These were confirmed by the BESII and CLEO-c experiments in 2005 and the more accurate production rate measurement at BESIII. They gave the conclusive rigorous proof of the Equivalence Theorem of the Goldstone bosons and longitudinal weak bosons. Recently they proposed a new sensitive method of model-independently measuring the anomalous gauge couplings of the Higgs boson via WW scatterings at the LHC, and a group of the ATLAS collaboration has started doing this experiment at the LHC. Prof. Pengfei Zhuang��s group made great contributions in the field of QCD phase transitions and relativistic heavy ion collisions, QCD condensed matter physics and high energy quantum transport theory. They analytically derived the Goldstone mode corresponding to spontaneous isospin symmetry
breaking in pion superfluid and proposed a selfconsistent theoretical method to study phase transitions beyond mean-field approximation. They developed the equal-time quantum transport theory, and established the detailed transport model to describe the motion of heavy flavors in quark matter. The research group in charge of Prof. Shengjiang
Zhu has made important progress on experimental nuclear physics, nuclear technology, nuclear structure and characteristics of nuclear high spin states. For examples, three sets of chiral double bands were first discovered in A=100 nuclear region, four sets of twophonon gamma-vibrational bands in odd-A nuclei were first identified in A=110 nuclear region, and the octupole deformation in odd-A nuclei and the doubleoctupole deformed bands were found in A=140 nuclear region.  Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics led by Prof. Ti-pei Li undertakes the studies of high energy telescope electronic systems, anti-coinsidence charged particle shielding systems, collimators, science databases and the relevant software systems in the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope project. HXMT is the first  space-based telescope developed independently in China which adopted the method of direct modulation.  This telescope will carry out broad-band (1-250 keV), high resolution X-ray imaging surveys and perform high-precision pointed observations of  neutron stars and black holes to analyze rapid X-ray light variations.
7. Perspective and recruitment plan
 Today, the latest generation of Tsinghua physicists continues to bring new insights into the exploration of fundamental problems involving physics at all scales, and continue to provide outstanding and innovative educational opportunities to the many talented men and  women who enroll in Tsinghua��s flexible undergraduate and graduate programs. With dedicated support from its alumni and friends, the Physics Department will improve its research and study environment  considerably. A new modern physics laboratory building with a planned area of 20,000 square meters will be built in the  near future. Now the Department is making efforts in recruiting new faculty members. The Department will recruit six
new faculty members each year for the next five consecutive years in areas of condensed matter physics; atomic, molecular and optical physics; quantum information; cosmology and astrophysics; biophysics; particle physics, and;  nuclear physics. There is no restriction on the area of research for outstanding physicists who can lead us into new  directions of research.
AAPPS Bulletin        ISSN: 0218-2203
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